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挖掘機使用壽命延長要注意什么?

日期:2023-07-12   來源:http://www.10q1.com/
1、保證正常的工作載荷
1. Ensure normal working load
工程機械工作載荷的大小和性質對機械的損耗過程有著重要的影響。一般來說,零件的磨損隨負荷的增加而成比例地增加。當零件承受的載荷高于平均設計載荷時,其磨損將會加劇。另外,在其他條件相同時,穩定的載荷比動載荷下磨損要小,故障少,壽命低。
The size and nature of the working load of construction machinery have a significant impact on the mechanical loss process. Generally speaking, the wear of parts increases proportionally with the increase of load. When the load borne by the component is higher than the average design load, its wear will intensify. In addition, when other conditions are the same, the wear under stable load is smaller than that under dynamic load, with fewer failures and low service life.
試驗表明,發動機在不穩定載荷下工作與穩定載荷下工作比較,其氣缸的磨損將增大兩倍。在正常負荷下工作的發動機,其故障發生率較低,且壽命延長。相反,超負荷運轉的發動機,故障發生率明顯增多,壽命也會比設計指標減少。因此,經常處于大范圍負荷變動的機械磨損量大于連續穩定工作的機械。
Experiments have shown that when the engine operates under unstable load compared to stable load, the wear of its cylinders will increase by two times. Engines operating under normal load have a lower failure rate and longer lifespan. On the contrary, overloaded engines have a significant increase in fault occurrence and a decrease in lifespan compared to design specifications. Therefore, the wear and tear of machinery that is often subject to large-scale load changes is greater than that of machinery that operates continuously and stably.
2、減少各種腐蝕作用
2. Reduce various corrosive effects
金屬表面與周圍介質發生化學或電化學作用而遭受破壞的現象稱腐蝕。這種腐蝕作用不但會影響機械外表設備的正常工作,而且會腐蝕到機械內部的零部件。如雨水、空氣中的化學物質等通過機械零部件的對外通道、縫隙等進入機械內部,腐蝕機械零件內部,加速機械磨損,增加機械故障。
The phenomenon of metal surface being damaged by chemical or electrochemical interactions with surrounding media is called corrosion. This corrosive effect not only affects the normal operation of the external equipment of the machinery, but also corrodes the internal components of the machinery. For example, rainwater, chemicals in the air, etc. enter the interior of the machine through the external channels and gaps of mechanical parts, corrode the interior of Machine element, accelerate mechanical wear, and increase mechanical failures.
加長臂挖掘機租賃
由于這種腐蝕作用有時是看不見、摸不著的,容易被人忽視,因而其危害性更大。在使用中,管理和操作人員要根據當時當地天氣情況、空氣污染情況,采取有效的措施,減小化學腐蝕對機械的影響,是防止雨水及空氣中化學成分對機械的侵入,盡可能減少雨中作業。
Due to the fact that this corrosive effect is sometimes invisible or untouchable, it is easily overlooked and therefore more harmful. During use, management and operators should take effective measures based on the local weather conditions and air pollution at the time to reduce the impact of chemical corrosion on the machinery, with a focus on preventing the intrusion of rainwater and chemical components in the air into the machinery, and minimizing operations in the rain as much as possible.
3、減少機械雜質的影響
3. Reduce the impact of mechanical impurities
機械雜質一般指的是灰塵、土壤等非金屬物質和工程機械在使用過程中自身產生的一些金屬屑、磨損產物等。這些雜質一旦進入機械內部,到達機械的配合表面之間,其危害是很大的,不但使相對運動出來阻滯,加速零件的磨損,而且會擦傷配合表面,破壞潤滑油膜,使零件溫度升高、潤滑油變質。
Mechanical impurities generally refer to non-metallic substances such as dust and soil, as well as some metal chips and wear products generated by engineering machinery during use. Once these impurities enter the interior of the machine and reach between the mating surfaces of the machine, their harm is significant. They not only hinder relative motion and accelerate the wear of the parts, but also scratch the mating surface, damage the lubricating oil film, and cause the temperature of the parts to rise, leading to the deterioration of the lubricating oil.
據測定,潤滑中機械雜質增加到0.15%時,發動機道活塞環的磨損速度將比正常值大2.5倍;滾動軸隨進入雜質微粒時,其壽命將降低80%-90%。因此,對于工作在環境惡劣、條件復雜場所的工程機械來說,一要使用優質、配套的零部件及潤滑油、潤滑脂,堵住有害雜質的源頭;二要做好工作現場的機械防護工作,保證相應機構能正常工作,防止各種雜質進入機械內部。對出現故障的機械,盡量到正規的修理場所進行修理?,F場修理時,也要做好防護措施,防止現場修理時更換的零部件在進入機械前受到灰塵等雜質的污染。
According to measurements, when mechanical impurities in lubrication increase to 0.15%, the wear rate of the first piston ring of the engine will be 2.5 times higher than the normal value; When the rolling shaft enters impurities, its lifespan will decrease by 80% -90%. Therefore, for construction machinery working in harsh and complex environments, it is necessary to use high-quality and matching components, lubricants, and greases to block the source of harmful impurities; Secondly, it is necessary to do a good job in mechanical protection at the work site to ensure that the corresponding mechanisms can work normally and prevent various impurities from entering the interior of the machinery. For machinery that has malfunctioned, try to go to a formal repair site for repair. During on-site repairs, protective measures should also be taken to prevent the replaced parts from being contaminated by impurities such as dust before entering the machinery.
4、減少溫度的影響
4. Reduce the impact of temperature
在工作中,各個零部件的溫度都有各自的正常范圍。如一般冷卻水的溫度為80-90℃,液壓傳動系統液壓油的溫度為30-60℃,低于或超過此范圍就會加速零件的磨損,引起潤滑油變質,造成材料性能變化等等。
In work, the temperature of each component has its own normal range. For example, the temperature of cooling water is generally 80-90 ℃, and the temperature of hydraulic oil in hydraulic transmission systems is 30-60 ℃. If it falls below or exceeds this range, it will accelerate the wear of parts, cause lubricant deterioration, and cause changes in material properties.
試驗表明,各種工程機械的主傳動齒輪和軸承在-5℃的潤滑油中運轉比在3℃的潤滑油中運轉,磨損要增大10-12倍。但當溫度過高時,又會加速潤滑油的變質,如機油溫度超過55-60℃時,油溫每升高5℃,機油的氧化速度將提高一倍。
Experiments have shown that the wear of the main transmission gears and bearings of various construction machinery increases by 10-12 times when operating in -5 ℃ lubricating oil compared to operating in 3 ℃ lubricating oil. But when the temperature is too high, it will accelerate the deterioration of the lubricating oil. For example, when the oil temperature exceeds 55-60 ℃, the oxidation rate of the oil will double for every 5 ℃ increase in oil temperature.
為此,工程機械在使用過程中,一要防止低溫下進行超負荷運轉,保證低速預溫階段的正常運行,使機械達到規定溫度后再進行行駛或工作,不要因為當時不出現問題而忽視其重要作用;二要防止機械在高溫下運轉,機械運行過程中要經常檢查各種溫度表上的數值,發現問題立即停機進行檢查,發現故障及時排除。
Therefore, during the use of construction machinery, it is necessary to prevent overload operation at low temperatures, ensure normal operation during the low-speed preheating stage, and allow the machinery to reach the specified temperature before driving or working. Do not neglect its important role because there are no problems at that time; Secondly, it is necessary to prevent the machinery from operating at high temperatures. During the operation of the machinery, it is necessary to frequently check the values on various temperature gauges. If any problems are found, the machine should be immediately shut down for inspection and any faults should be promptly resolved.

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